Clinical Picture of Myocardial Infarction

A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI) as it is properly called, is a common heart disease that is the leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Its development in most cases is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and vasoconstriction of the heart muscle. The article is especially relevant today, since every year the […]

Classification, Pathophysiology of Valvular Pulmonary Stenosis

Pulmonary stenosis is a defect in the valve of the pulmonary artery. In this case, the valve itself hardens, causing obstruction of the vessel and impaired blood flow. This disease is usually congenital, benign, diagnosed in children who have a positive prognosis. Pulmonary stenosis is also present in adults, usually in association with severe structural […]

Classification, Pathophysiology of Ebstein’s Anomaly

Ebstein’s anomaly includes a wide range of morphological and clinical manifestations. Those who show symptoms in early infancy tend to be at the highest risk. This pathology affects the tricuspid valve (its other name is right atrioventricular valve) and is a congenital malformation of the cardiovascular system. At the same time, there is a shift […]

Classification, Pathophysiology of Fallot’s Tetrad

Congenital heart defects are a significant medical problem. The presence of even one of them in a child can impose serious restrictions on his life, require treatment and special care; some vices are life-threatening. Tetralogy of Fallot (also named as Fallot’s syndrome, Fallot’s tetrad, Steno-Fallot tetralogy) is a combination of the four vices. This condition […]

Hemodynamic Disturbances in Mitral Stenosis

Mitral stenosis (MS) is a narrowing of the space between the left ventricle and the atrium. This is a fairly common heart disease, which can be either acquired or congenital. In this article, we tried to describe in detail the features of hemodynamics in this pathology, and also briefly touched on general information about this […]

Etiology and Pathogenesis of PE

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a form of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This condition develops due to the presence of an embolus (blood clot) that restricts blood flow through the pulmonary artery or its branches (they are embolized). This can lead to a life-threatening condition, so correct diagnosis and prompt treatment are very important in PE. In […]

Viral Pericarditis

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium (serous lining of the heart), which is its most common pathology. Causes can be infectious (tuberculosis remains the most common cause in developing countries) or non-infectious, but remain idiopathic (uncertain) in most cases. In this article, we will analyze in detail the viral form of this disease, and […]

Clinical Picture of Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. The latter are mainly composed of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances found in the blood. Over time, the plaque narrows the lumen of the artery. This entails restricting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs and other parts of the body. Atherosclerosis […]

Anatomy of the Circulatory System

The human cardiovascular system carries blood from the heart to all organs and tissues of the body, delivering nutrients and oxygen to them, removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. This is the most important system that has a complex structure. However, to understand the processes occurring in the body, it is necessary to understand […]


Cardiorehabilitation (CR) is a set of measures aimed at the most complete restoration of health, psychological status and working capacity of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). To date, this area has turned into a comprehensive program that takes into account CVD risk factors, provides medical literacy and social support for the patient. Below we will […]

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Cardiac Tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardial space. Also, this condition is sometimes called pericardial tamponade or pericardial cavity tamponade, which is not entirely true. Below we will talk in detail about the causes and mechanisms of the development of this pathology, and also touch a little on its treatment […]

Etiology, Pathogenesis, Electrophysiology of Ventricular Tachycardia and Sudden Cardiac Death

Ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be a complication of a number of diseases. They can occur in people without previously identified diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Below we will analyze in detail the origin (etiology), mechanisms for the development of heart rhythm disturbance and its work. The cardiac muscle contains […]

Treatment of CHF

Treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an urgent topic for a large number of patients. It is estimated that approximately every hundredth person suffers from CHF worldwide. Men get sick more often. In this article, we will analyze the stages of treatment of this pathology, medications, and also briefly remind readers what this condition […]

Etiology, Pathogenesis of Syncope

Syncope (syncope, fainting) is a transient loss of consciousness due to transient hypoperfusion of the brain (a short-term decrease in blood flow). They are a common problem, accounting for approximately 3% of all emergency room visits and 1% of all hospital visits. The peak incidence in young people is between 10 and 30 years of […]

Retrosternal Pain

Retrosternal pain is one of the main signs of coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction. However, there are several diseases that can cause this symptom. In this article, we will analyze the main causes of chest pain, and also touch a little on the management of patients with this disorder. Where is retrosternal pain […]

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases that is associated with an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) and occurs as a result of insufficient release of insulin or a violation of its action on tissues. There are several types of diabetes mellitus. The most common type 1 and 2 […]

Acute Heart Failure (AHF) – Clinical Picture

Acute heart failure (AHF) is a condition in which the symptoms of a malfunctioning heart quickly appear or worsen (the heart ceases to properly perform its primary function of pumping blood around the body), and the patient needs urgent medical attention. Below we will analyze in detail the clinical picture of the disease, its classification, […]

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms: Classification, Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

An aneurysm is a pathologically enlarged section of an artery. The disease occurs in the form of both congenital and acquired pathology. Aneurysms can occur in any artery. In this article, we will analyze the classification, clinical picture and diagnosis of one of the most common forms of this pathology – thoracic aortic aneurysm. We […]