Chronic kidney disease treatment in 690 Vascular surgery clinics worldwide

Top
Clinics
Ratings
Diseases
Read about
Quick navigation

690 clinics specializing in Vascular surgery providing treatment of Chronic kidney disease Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition where the kidneys gradually lose their function over time. It can lead to complications like high blood pressure, anemia, and may require lifestyle changes, medication, or dialysis for management.
Read more...
worldwide.

Africa · 8
Americas · 171
Asia · 199
Europe · 285
Oceania · 27
You can select a specific region
Africa · 8 Americas · 171 Asia · 199 Europe · 285 Oceania · 27
Sorted by:
Relevance
Rating Relevance
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $984
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $650
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $366
  4. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $6,801
  5. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $7,070
  6. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $1,354
  7. Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    ≈ $497
  8. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $1,168
  9. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $575
photo
Minsk, Belarus
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery
State Institution "Republican Scientific and Practical Center" Cardiology "is the leading scientific, medical, organizational, methodological and educational institution. The center provides a full range of read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $16,869
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $12,027
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $7,832
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $33,879
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $31,117
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $57,435
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $94,484
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $28,471
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $44,973
photo
Boston, United States
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), world renowned in virtually every area of adult medicine, is a 793 bed teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. Consistently read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $1,820
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $1,452
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $969
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $936
  5. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $2,927
  6. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $5,187
  7. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $1,064
  8. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,513
  9. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    ≈ $419
photo
Debrecen, Hungary
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Clinical Center provides the high quality implementation of patient care in University of Debrecen. In the Clinical Center of University of Debrecen more than read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $16,869
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $12,027
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $7,832
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $33,879
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $31,117
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $57,435
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $94,484
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $28,471
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $44,973
photo
Boston, United States
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, Italian, Khmer, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish; Castilian
Mass General has the largest hospital based research program in the U.S. Guided by the needs of our patients, Mass General delivers care grounded in read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $16,869
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $12,027
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $7,832
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $28,471
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $21,931
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $11,480
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    ≈ $3,198
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    ≈ $12,059
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    ≈ $8,308
photo
Vero Beach, United States
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Since opening our doors 88 years ago, Cleveland Clinic Indian River Hospital has grown from a small community facility to a 332-bed, not-for-profit hospital. Our read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $16,869
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $12,027
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $7,832
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $28,471
  5. Reconstructive surgery for peripheral artery disease (PAD)
    $61,450
  6. Peripheral artery bypass
    ≈ $75,390
  7. Renal artery bypass surgery
    ≈ $65,039
  8. Aortoiliac allografting
    ≈ $101,454
  9. Femoral-popliteal bypass graft surgery
    ≈ $48,330
photo
Los Angeles, United States
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Founded in 1955, UCLA Medical Center became Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in 2008, reopening in a new 10-story structure (eight above ground) that takes read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $5,551
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $5,472
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $3,299
  4. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $10,618
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $23,917
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $23,917
  7. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $8,119
  8. Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    ≈ $7,195
  9. Renal artery angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $7,543
photo
Okayama, Japan
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery
Languages: English, Japanese
The Sakakibara Heart Institute of Okayama is one of the most prestigious cardiovascular institutes in Japan, and was established in 1932 by Dr Toru Sakakibara. read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $6,106
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $4,482
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $3,494
  4. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $11,199
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $45,533
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $44,463
  7. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $11,233
  8. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $8,735
  9. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $3,852
photo
Milan, Italy
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery
Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS is the first hospital in Europe exclusively dedicated to medical and surgical treatment and the study of cardiovascular diseases. It is read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $16,869
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $12,027
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $7,832
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $33,879
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $31,117
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $57,435
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $94,484
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $28,471
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $44,973
photo
Little Rock, United States
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery
Established in 1997, Arkansas Heart Hospital is a nationally recognized and award-winning hospital dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease serving over read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $2,486
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $1,825
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $1,429
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $1,096
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $15,877
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $16,143
  7. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $3,458
  8. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $6,147
  9. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $4,024
photo
Prague, Czech Republic
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
FN Motol (Faculty Hospital Motol) is presently divided into 3 units – a children’s hospital serving 690 young patients, an adult unit for 1230 patients read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $1,820
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $1,452
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $969
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $2,927
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $1,064
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,513
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    ≈ $419
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,618
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    ≈ $1,116
photo
Eger, Hungary
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The roots of the Markhot Ferenc hospital go back several centuries. The natural source, the medicinal water, on which the medieval Turkish Bath was built, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $1,933
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    $517
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $554
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $2,213
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $431
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,673
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    $111
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    $554 - $714
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    $154 - $801
photo
Voronezh, Russia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: English, German
The German Medical Center DMZ is the first and only one clinic in Russia with a team of operating doctors from Germany.The clinic is faithful read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $2,603
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $891
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $1,373
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $4,551
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $3,332
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,239
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    from $84
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,304
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    ≈ $1,282
photo
Częstochowa, Poland
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Klara Medical Center offers comprehensive medical services provided on a commercial basis. Since mid-2022, our Center has been operating in two independent locations in Częstochowa read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $7,309
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $5,281
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $3,237
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $9,129
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $10,287
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $34,758
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $25,834
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $7,817
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $13,271
photo
Dublin, Ireland
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
We offer patients easy access to scheduled and emergency care delivered by leading consultants.We provide access to private patient consultation suites, digital diagnostic radiology platforms read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $7,309
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $5,281
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $3,237
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $9,129
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $10,287
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $34,758
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $25,834
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $7,817
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $13,271
photo
Blackrock, Ireland
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Blackrock Clinic is the leading and longest established private hospital and clinic in Ireland. Since it opened in the mid 1980s, the Clinic has read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $6,106
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $4,482
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $3,494
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $11,233
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $8,735
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $3,852
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,611
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    ≈ $4,705
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    ≈ $3,458
photo
Rome, Italy
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Hospital Classified pursuant to art. 1 of Law 132/68 as a General Hospital of the Area since 1972, the Fatebenefratelli Hospital on the Tiberina island read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $714
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $514
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $385
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $1,432
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $1,386
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $4,251
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $4,183
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $849
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $1,661
photo
Colombo, Sri Lanka
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The National Hospital situated in Colombo in a 32 acre block of land is the largest teaching hospital in Sri Lanka and the final referral read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $1,455
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $1,207
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $1,058
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $2,475
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $10,559
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $11,245
  7. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $1,748
  8. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $3,904
  9. Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    ≈ $1,841
photo
Tirana, Albania
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
"Mother Teresa" University Hospital Center in Tirana is the largest health institution in Albania and as an academic health institution it is the only one read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $1,992
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $692
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $638
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $2,599
  5. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $1,087
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for varicose veins (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,010
  7. Foam sclerotherapy (Unilateral)
    ≈ $196
  8. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose vein (Unilateral)
    ≈ $1,078
  9. Phlebectomy (including mini-phleboctomy)
    ≈ $658
photo
Ružomberok, Slovakia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Central Military Hospital of the SNP Ružomberok provides its services to all citizens of the Slovak Republic who need it, regardless of where they read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery
    ≈ $7,647
  2. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $4,951
  3. Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery
    ≈ $2,677
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $12,425
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $42,024
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $41,303
  7. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $9,481
  8. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $8,475
  9. Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    ≈ $10,019
photo
Edegem, Belgium
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Antwerp University Hospital (UZA) is an academic centre renowned for leading clinical and customer-friendly patient care, high-quality academic education and ground-breaking scientific research with read more

Clinics grouping by rating

Clinic with the highest rating of 5 — Berkana clinic in Moscow, Russia and 2 more, clinic with the most reviews number of 35757 — Aster CMI hospital in Bengaluru, India.

With rating 4.0 and over — 225 clinics .

Countries with the highest number of clinics treating the diseases:

Chronic kidney disease:

Related procedures:

Chronic Kidney Disease: An In-Depth Guide to Understanding, Managing, and Preventing CKD

Comprehensive Analysis of Chronic Kidney Disease: From Diagnosis to Advanced Management Strategies

Overview

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a progressive condition characterized by the gradual loss of kidney function. The kidneys are essential for filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in urine. Advanced stages of CKD can lead to the accumulation of dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes, and wastes in the body. Early detection and treatment are crucial in managing CKD and preventing its progression.

Risk Factors

Several factors can increase the risk of developing CKD:

  • Diabetes: The leading cause of CKD, high blood sugar can damage the blood vessels in the kidneys.
  • High Blood Pressure: The second leading cause, contributing to kidney damage over time.
  • Heart and Blood Vessel Disease: Cardiovascular diseases can impair kidney function.
  • Smoking: Smoking can interfere with the kidney's ability to filter blood and may exacerbate kidney disease.
  • Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the kidneys.
  • Family History of Kidney Disease: A genetic predisposition to kidney issues.
  • Older Age: The risk of CKD increases with age.
  • Abnormal Kidney Structure: Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys can lead to CKD.
  • Prolonged Use of Certain Medications: Some medications, like NSAIDs, can harm the kidneys.

Causes

CKD often stems from other medical conditions that put a strain on the kidneys:

  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2): Causes kidney damage over time due to high blood sugar.
  • High Blood Pressure: Damages the small blood vessels in the kidneys.
  • Glomerulonephritis: A group of diseases causing inflammation in the kidneys.
  • Interstitial Nephritis: Inflammation of the kidney’s tubules and surrounding structures.
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease: Characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys.
  • Prolonged Urinary Tract Obstruction: Can lead to kidney damage.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux: Causes urine to back up into the kidneys, potentially causing damage.
  • Recurrent Kidney Infection: Can lead to lasting kidney damage.

Symptoms

Early stages of CKD often have no symptoms. As the condition progresses, symptoms may include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Sleep problems
  • Changes in urine output
  • Decreased mental sharpness
  • Muscle twitches and cramps
  • Swelling in feet and ankles
  • Persistent itching
  • Chest pain and shortness of breath
  • High blood pressure

Treatment

CKD treatment aims to slow the progression of kidney damage.

The treatment of CKD aims not only to slow the progression of the disease but also to address the underlying causes and manage symptoms to improve the quality of life. Here are more in-depth insights into the available treatment options:

  1. Blood Pressure Control
    • Medications: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used to lower blood pressure and reduce strain on the kidneys.
    • Lifestyle Changes: Including dietary modifications, regular exercise, and weight loss.
  2. Blood Sugar Management
    • Medications for Diabetes: Ensuring tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin or oral hypoglycemics.
    • Diet and Exercise: A diet low in sugars and carbohydrates, along with regular physical activity, helps manage diabetes effectively.
  3. Treating Cholesterol Levels
    • Statins: These drugs are used to lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol levels, thereby reducing the risk of heart disease, a common complication of CKD.
  4. Anemia Management
    • Iron Supplements: Oral or intravenous iron supplements to address iron-deficiency anemia.
    • Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs): Medications that stimulate the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells.
  5. Mineral and Bone Disorder Treatment
    • Phosphate Binders: Prevent high phosphate levels by binding phosphate in the gut.
    • Vitamin D Supplements: To correct vitamin D deficiency, which is common in CKD.
    • Calcimimetics: Medications that lower parathyroid hormone levels, which can be elevated in CKD.
  6. Dietary Adjustments
    • Nutritionist Consultation: Working with a dietitian to develop a kidney-friendly eating plan.
    • Reduced Protein Intake: To decrease the buildup of waste products in the blood.
    • Limiting Fluids: Managing fluid intake to prevent fluid overload, especially in later stages of CKD.
  7. Dialysis
    • Hemodialysis: A machine filters waste and excess fluids from the blood, typically done several times a week at a dialysis center.
    • Peritoneal Dialysis: Involves surgically placing a catheter into the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen to filter the blood inside the body.
  8. Kidney Transplantation
    • Donor Kidney: Receiving a kidney from a living or deceased donor.
    • Immunosuppressive Therapy: Medications to prevent the body from rejecting the new kidney.
  9. Managing Complications
    • Cardiovascular Treatments: Addressing any heart-related complications.
    • Electrolyte Imbalance Management: Regular monitoring and adjustments in medication or diet to maintain electrolyte balance.
  10. Lifestyle Modifications
    • Smoking Cessation: Essential for overall kidney health.
    • Exercise: Regular physical activity tailored to the individual's capacity.
    • Stress Management: Techniques like meditation or counseling to manage stress.

Experimental and Emerging Therapies

  • Stem Cell Research: Exploring the potential of stem cells in repairing damaged kidney tissue.
  • Gene Therapy: Investigating genetic factors and potential genetic treatments.
  • New Pharmacological Agents: Development of novel drugs targeting specific pathways involved in CKD progression.

Holistic and Supportive Care

  • Psychological Support: Addressing the mental health challenges associated with living with a chronic illness.
  • Palliative Care: For advanced CKD, focusing on quality of life and symptom control.

Complications

CKD can lead to numerous complications, affecting various parts of the body:

  • Fluid retention, leading to swelling and hypertension.
  • Sudden changes in potassium levels, potentially affecting heart function.
  • Cardiovascular diseases.
  • Weak bones and increased risk of fractures.
  • Anemia and decreased sex drive.
  • Central nervous system damage.
  • Decreased immune response.
  • Pericarditis, an inflammation of the heart's outer lining.
  • Complications in pregnancy.
  • End-stage kidney disease, necessitating dialysis or transplantation.

Prevention

  • Preventive measures can reduce the risk of developing CKD:
  • Follow Instructions for OTC Medications: Especially those that can harm the kidneys.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: To ease the strain on kidneys.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking can exacerbate kidney damage.
  • Manage Existing Health Conditions: Keeping diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions under control.
  • Stay Hydrated: Adequate hydration helps the kidneys function properly.
  • Eat a Balanced Diet: Low in sodium and processed meats.
  • Regular Exercise: Helps in maintaining overall health.

Conclusion

Chronic Kidney Disease is a serious health condition, but with early detection and proper management, its progression can be slowed, and quality of life can be maintained. Understanding the risk factors, causes, and symptoms of CKD is essential for those at risk or already diagnosed with the condition. Through a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and regular medical check-ups, individuals with CKD can manage their condition effectively.

Reviewed by

  • Isabella Gonzalez, MD-PhD