Patent foramen ovale (PFO) treatment in 681 Cardiac surgery and Vascular surgery clinics worldwide

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681 clinics specializing in Cardiac surgery and Vascular surgery providing treatment of Patent foramen ovale (PFO) Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common congenital heart defect where a small hole between the upper chambers of the heart fails to close after birth. It can allow blood clots to pass from the right to the left side of the heart, potentially causing stroke or other complications.
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disease worldwide.

Africa · 7
Americas · 166
Asia · 232
Europe · 250
Oceania · 26
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Africa · 7 Americas · 166 Asia · 232 Europe · 250 Oceania · 26
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Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
photo
Lajeado, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Bruno Born Hospital is a philanthropic institution, with more than 80 years. It is registered with the National, State and Municipal Councils of Social Assistance read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $674
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $3,012
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  7. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $3,035
  8. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $9,709
  9. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $9,467
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Hospital São Camilo Pompeia has followed, over the years, the growth of the population and the scientific and technological advances aimed at medical and read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $674
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $3,012
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  7. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $3,035
  8. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $9,709
  9. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $9,467
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Integrated into the São Camilo de São Paulo Hospitals Network in March 1979, the Santana Unit has an agile and modern structure implemented to offer read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $674
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $3,012
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $3,035
  6. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $9,709
  7. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $9,467
  8. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $1,283
  9. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $2,289
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
A member of the Network since 2000, Hospital São Camilo Ipiranga has an emergency room for patients aged 12 years and over, an Intensive Care read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $11,541
  2. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  3. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  4. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $674
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
photo
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Quinta D'Or Hospital opened in September 2001 and is located opposite Quinta da Boa Vista, in Rio de Janeiro. It emerged from the renovation read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $3,012
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
photo
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Lifecenter Hospital stands out among the most sophisticated and renowned health institutions in Minas Gerais. Its activities cover urgent and emergency medical care, surgeries, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $674
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  5. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $3,012
  6. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  8. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $3,035
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $4,190
photo
Serra, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Founded in 2001, Vitória Apart Hospital is a center of excellence in high complexity medicine in Espírito Santo, prepared to take care of people's health read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $17,416
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  3. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $2,044
  4. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $3,467
  5. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $15,064
  8. Catheter cardiac ablation
    ≈ $9,658
  9. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in children
    ≈ $10,442
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital is a highly complex, tertiary, reference hospital for the entire country and neighboring countries. Since its creation, in 1875, it read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $17,416
  2. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  3. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  4. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  7. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $5,111
  8. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $2,044
  9. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $3,467
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" is the pediatric center of reference in public health, free and highly complex in Argentina. Since its inauguration, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  2. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  3. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  4. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  5. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
  6. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $32,318
  7. Varicose veins treatment
    ≈ $4,367
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $7,029
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
On July 24, 1896, the Pirovano Hospital (which was to be called Belgrano Hospital) opened its doors to ensure the assistance of an original population read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  5. Peripheral artery angioplasty and stent placement
    ≈ $5,111
  6. Uterine artery embolization (UAE)
    ≈ $3,331
  7. Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement
    ≈ $2,783
  8. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  9. Renal artery angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $3,371
photo
Posadas, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Health Park of the Province of Misiones "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" was created through Law XVII Nº70, approved by the majority of the legislative body read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $32,318
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery
Inaugurated on March 1, 1991, the Suizo Argentina Clinic and Maternity began its history with a revolutionary vision in the concept of care and comfort read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  2. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $4,799
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  5. Abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)
    ≈ $16,239
  6. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR)
    ≈ $15,813
  7. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $2,044
  8. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $3,467
  9. Carotid angioplasty and stenting
    ≈ $5,887
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Revista del Hospital El Cruce (ISSN: 2524-9932), in its abbreviated name Rev Hosp El Cruce, is a scientific and continuous periodical publication of the read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $17,416
  2. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  3. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  5. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $4,799
  6. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  8. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  9. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
We are a benchmark health care network in Argentina and we are committed to offering the world excellent medicine. Our Hospital is among the main read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $17,416
  2. Pulmonary angiography
    ≈ $980
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA)
    ≈ $4,799
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Instituto Modelo de Cardiologia Privado SRL (IMC) is a professional organization focused on the Vision and Mission of: Offer patients comprehensive personalized medical assistance, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  7. Single chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $7,520
  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacemaker (CRT-P)
    ≈ $10,888
  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D)
    ≈ $20,431
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
As of March 14, 1994, the Alexander Fleming Institute opened its doors to medical and scientific excellence. Maximum technical-scientific level and comfort in one of read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children
    ≈ $17,416
  2. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  3. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
photo
San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sanatorio Junín offer the entire population of Catamarca and the NOA integrated health care at levels of low to high complexity, with a highly qualified read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $5,197
  5. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $10,215
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  8. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Footscray, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Footscray Hospital is an acute teaching hospital with approximately 290 beds (following recent relocation of a number of services to Sunshine Hospital). It provides the read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  6. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Saint Albans, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sunshine Hospital is an acute and sub-acute teaching hospital with approximately 600 beds(including Mental Health beds managed by North West Mental Health). Sunshine Hospital has read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  2. NobleStitch™ PFO closure procedure
    by request
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Arteriovenous (AV) fistula surgery
    ≈ $5,197
  5. Endovascular thrombectomy
    ≈ $10,215
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  8. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Southport, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Oncology
We’re located on the corner of Parklands Drive and Olsen Avenue in Southport and provide public health services for the Gold Coast and wider community. read more

Clinics grouping by rating

Clinic with the highest rating of 5 — Clinical Hospital Lapino in Moscow, Russia and 5 more, clinic with the most reviews number of 35612 — Aster CMI hospital in Bengaluru, India.

With rating 4.0 and over — 245 clinics .

Countries with the highest number of clinics treating the diseases:

Patent foramen ovale (PFO):

Related procedures:

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) as one of the conditions of minor heart anomalies

Hemodynamic disturbances in minor heart anomalies

Our body is a unique system in which scientists are not always able to draw a clear line between the norm and pathology. One such situation is when a patient has one or more conditions from the so-called group of minor heart anomalies (MHA). In this article, we will analyze in detail what these defects are and what features of hemodynamics (blood flow) they have.

Why was the term "minor heart anomalies" used?

Improving the diagnosis of heart diseases, the accumulation and analysis of the results of scientific research and databases have led to the interest of doctors and scientists in borderline changes in the structure of the heart. Some authors refer to the latter as MHA. However, this term is not international, and the states that can be attributed to it remain a matter of debate.

MHA belongs to connective tissue dysplasia (CTD) — a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases that are caused by primary (genetic) or secondary (non-genetic) disorders in the production and/or breakdown of connective tissue proteins and components of the extracellular substance.

Various pathologies can be attributed to MHA, however, in this article, in the context of MHA, we will analyze hemodynamics in the following conditions:

  1. mitral valve prolapse (MVP);
  2. aneurysm of the interatrial septum (AIS);
  3. patent foramen ovale (PFO);
  4. an elongated Eustachian valve (EV);
  5. Chiari networks.

However, before the main part of the article, it is necessary to recall important aspects of the anatomy of the heart and hemodynamics in normal conditions. So, the heart consists of four cavities: two ventricles and two atria. The left side of the heart muscle pumps blood through the systemic circulation, and the right side through the small one. Both halves are separated by a partition. An important role in proper hemodynamics is played by the valves of the heart, which prevent the reverse flow of blood.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

MVP is detected by ECHO-CG in 2-3% of patients from the general population. The main complications of this pathology are associated with the progression of mitral insufficiency. When it occurs, the reverse flow of blood (regurgitation) from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Also, this pathology increases the risk of endocarditis (inflammation of the inner layer of the heart - endocardium), sudden cardiac death and stroke.

Elongated Eustachian valve (EV)

The remnants of the Eustachian valve (EV) are parts of the embryological valves of the venous sinus (it is a rudimentary, anatomically variable structure). The average length of the EC is 3.6 mm with a range of 1.5 to 23 mm. It may persist as a mobile oblong structure extending into the right atrium. Thus, it can be mistaken for an abnormal formation in the heart. The Eustachian valve should be differentiated from atrial tumors, thrombi, or vegetations.

A large EV may be associated with impaired hemodynamics due to the direction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava into the left atrium through an atrial septal defect. It may also predispose to paradoxical embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale by the same mechanism. A large EV can cause an obstruction (blockage) in the inferior vena cava. Myxoma, papillary fibroelastoma and cyst can also occur from it. In some cases, EV causes endocarditis, pulmonary thromboembolism and provokes the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia.

The manifestations and clinical significance of an elongated EV are determined by the association with other anomalies, difficulties in differential ECHO-CG diagnostics, and possible complications.

Chiari Network

The Chiari network is a congenital anatomical variation at the junction of the right atrium with the superior and inferior vena cava. The network was first described in the medical literature in 1875.

The prevalence of the Chiari network varies from 1.3 to 4% with post-mortem findings and from 0.3 to 9.5% with transthoracic echocardiography. This pathology may also be associated with an increased prevalence of other congenital anomalies, including patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm. However, there was no convincing evidence that this defect can interfere with blood flow.

The medical literature describes cases of difficulty in passing catheters into various structures of the heart if the patient has a Chiari network.

Patent foramen ovale (PFO)

In 75% of the population, the foramen ovale spontaneously closes normally at birth with an increase in left atrial pressure and a decrease in pulmonary resistance. However, it persists as an open pulmonary collar in 15–35% of the adult population. A patent foramen ovale is an embryonic atrial septal defect that allows oxygenated blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium. The PFO is of clinical importance because it can be a source of thrombus formation or serve as a conduit for paradoxical embolism.

Atrial septal aneurysm

This condition is a local atrial septal defect, consisting of its excess and mobile tissue. This defect is located in the region of the oval fossa and protrudes into the right or left atrium, and sometimes fluctuates between both atria. Although its prevalence in the general population has not been reported, the defect is thought to occur in 2–3% of the population. Except for its potential role in cardioembolic stroke and its structural association with valvular regurgitation, patent foramen ovale, and atrial septal defect, it has been considered an incidental and clinically asymptomatic finding in adult patients.

Thus, clinically significant hemodynamic disturbances in minor cardiac anomalies are quite rare. Most often, these conditions are associated with regurgitation, an increased risk of thrombosis and endocarditis. It is not uncommon for different forms of MHA to be found in the same patient.

References:

  1. Basso C, Iliceto S, Thiene G, Perazzolo Marra M. Mitral Valve Prolapse, Ventricular Arrhythmias, and Sudden Death. Circulation. 2019;140(11):952-964.
  2. Althunayyan A, Petersen SE, Lloyd G, Bhattacharyya S. Mitral valve prolapse. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2019;17(1):43-51.
  3. Gulel O, Yazici M, Sahin M. Unusual elongation of the Eustachian valve. Int Heart J. 2007;48(1):113-116.
  4. Teshome MK, Najib K, Nwagbara CC, Akinseye OA, Ibebuogu UN. Patent Foramen Ovale: A Comprehensive Review. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2020;45(2):100392.
  5. Yetkin E, Ileri M, Korkmaz A, Ozturk S. Association between atrial septal aneurysm and arrhythmias. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2020;54(3):169-173.
  6. Supranational (international) recommendations for structural anomalies of the heart // Medical Bulletin of the North Caucasus. 2018. No. 1.2.