Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) treatment in 588 Cardiac surgery clinics worldwide

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588 clinics specializing in Cardiac surgery providing treatment of Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect where the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, leading to impaired blood flow and life-threatening consequences without surgical intervention.
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disease worldwide.

Africa · 5
Americas · 147
Asia · 207
Europe · 206
Oceania · 23
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Africa · 5 Americas · 147 Asia · 207 Europe · 206 Oceania · 23
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Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $17,973
photo
Lajeado, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Bruno Born Hospital is a philanthropic institution, with more than 80 years. It is registered with the National, State and Municipal Councils of Social Assistance read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  3. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Hospital São Camilo Pompeia has followed, over the years, the growth of the population and the scientific and technological advances aimed at medical and read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  3. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Integrated into the São Camilo de São Paulo Hospitals Network in March 1979, the Santana Unit has an agile and modern structure implemented to offer read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  3. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  4. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  5. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  6. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
  8. Catheter cardiac ablation
    ≈ $3,620
  9. Catheter cryoablation
    ≈ $8,265
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
A member of the Network since 2000, Hospital São Camilo Ipiranga has an emergency room for patients aged 12 years and over, an Intensive Care read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $9,102
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $10,946
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $9,868
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $6,199
  5. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  6. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  8. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  9. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
photo
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Quinta D'Or Hospital opened in September 2001 and is located opposite Quinta da Boa Vista, in Rio de Janeiro. It emerged from the renovation read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $17,973
photo
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Lifecenter Hospital stands out among the most sophisticated and renowned health institutions in Minas Gerais. Its activities cover urgent and emergency medical care, surgeries, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $4,364
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $3,756
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  7. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
photo
Serra, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Founded in 2001, Vitória Apart Hospital is a center of excellence in high complexity medicine in Espírito Santo, prepared to take care of people's health read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $18,654
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $15,057
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $11,361
  5. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $15,064
  8. Catheter cardiac ablation
    ≈ $9,658
  9. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in children
    ≈ $10,442
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital is a highly complex, tertiary, reference hospital for the entire country and neighboring countries. Since its creation, in 1875, it read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $18,654
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $15,057
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $11,361
  5. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $8,023
  6. Fetal cardiac interventions
    by request
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  9. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" is the pediatric center of reference in public health, free and highly complex in Argentina. Since its inauguration, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $8,023
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  3. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  4. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  7. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $7,029
  9. Single chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $7,520
photo
Posadas, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Health Park of the Province of Misiones "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" was created through Law XVII Nº70, approved by the majority of the legislative body read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $18,654
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $15,057
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $11,361
  5. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $8,023
  6. Fetal cardiac interventions
    by request
  7. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  8. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  9. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
We are a benchmark health care network in Argentina and we are committed to offering the world excellent medicine. Our Hospital is among the main read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $18,654
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $15,057
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $11,361
  5. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  6. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  7. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  8. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  9. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Instituto Modelo de Cardiologia Privado SRL (IMC) is a professional organization focused on the Vision and Mission of: Offer patients comprehensive personalized medical assistance, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $8,023
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  3. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  4. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  7. Single chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $7,520
  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacemaker (CRT-P)
    ≈ $10,888
  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D)
    ≈ $20,431
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
As of March 14, 1994, the Alexander Fleming Institute opened its doors to medical and scientific excellence. Maximum technical-scientific level and comfort in one of read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Glenn procedure
    ≈ $18,654
  2. Norwood procedure
    ≈ $15,057
  3. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  4. Blalock-Taussig shunt
    ≈ $11,361
  5. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $8,023
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
photo
San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sanatorio Junín offer the entire population of Catamarca and the NOA integrated health care at levels of low to high complexity, with a highly qualified read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  3. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Footscray, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Footscray Hospital is an acute teaching hospital with approximately 290 beds (following recent relocation of a number of services to Sunshine Hospital). It provides the read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  3. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Saint Albans, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sunshine Hospital is an acute and sub-acute teaching hospital with approximately 600 beds(including Mental Health beds managed by North West Mental Health). Sunshine Hospital has read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  3. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  4. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  5. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Southport, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Oncology
We’re located on the corner of Parklands Drive and Olsen Avenue in Southport and provide public health services for the Gold Coast and wider community. read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  3. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  4. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
  8. Septal myectomy
    ≈ $34,272
  9. Fractional flow reserve (FFR)
    ≈ $2,542
photo
Woolloongabba, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: English
Princess Alexandra Hospital (PAH) is a tertiary health care centre, providing care in all major adult specialties, with the exception of obstetrics. We are read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $76,496
photo
Auchenflower, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
For generations of Queenslanders, The Wesley Hospital in Brisbane has provided care through life’s journey — from birth into childhood, to adulthood and to end read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Rashkind procedure
    ≈ $14,801
  2. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  5. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  7. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Garran, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Canberra Health Services (CHS) delivers high quality, effective, person-centred care. We deliver a range of health services for people across the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) read more

Clinics grouping by rating

Clinic with the highest rating of 5 — Clinical Hospital Lapino in Moscow, Russia and 5 more, clinic with the most reviews number of 35612 — Aster CMI hospital in Bengaluru, India.

With rating 4.0 and over — 214 clinics .

Countries with the highest number of clinics treating the diseases:

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS):

Related procedures:

Procedures are likely to be used for Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) treatment: Blalock-Taussig shunt, Fetal cardiac interventions, Fontan procedure, Glenn procedure, and Norwood procedure .

What you need to know about single ventricular defect disease

What is a single ventricular defect?

A single ventricular defect (SV) is congenital heart disease. It occurs when the patient has one ventricle instead of two, or the second pumping chamber is not large enough or not strong enough for correct operation. In some cases, the chamber may be missing a valve.

Some aspects of the development and anatomy of the heart.

Fetal heartbeat is one of the main signs of pregnancy. Intrauterine, the heart develops from a tube that expands and begins to contract three weeks after conception. Further, the atria and ventricles are formed. The right ventricle pumps carbon dioxide-rich blood into the lungs, while the left one pumps oxygenated blood (saturated with oxygen) throughout the body.

An important role in the work of the heart is played by its valve apparatus.

The prevalence of pathology

Defects of a single ventricle are rare and affect an estimated 5 to 10 out of 100,000 newborns.

Defect classification

There are three main types of defects in a single developed ventricle: the left, in which there is a trace of the right ventricle, the right dominant ventricle, in which there is a trace of the left, and an indefinite single ventricle. The complex structure of the heart and the peculiarities of hemodynamics make each anomaly from this group of diseases unique, which requires an individual approach to treatment for each patient.

Also, the pathology has 4 types, depending on the location of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk: normal location, location of the aorta to the right or left of the pulmonary trunk and the reverse of the normal position of the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of the disease

To identify this group of pathologies, the doctor collects a detailed history, prescribes laboratory tests of blood and urine. Also, instrumental diagnostic methods such as ECG, ultrasound, computed and magnetic resonance imaging and others are used.

Disease therapy

This pathology is one of the most difficult heart problems. The disease usually requires more than one surgical procedure. Babies born with this pathology undergo a series of operations, the ultimate goal of which is to maximize the restoration of heart function.

Conservative therapy is also carried out aimed at reducing the load on the heart, treating heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and rhythm disturbances.

Types of a single ventricle

Some of the most common single ventricular defects include:

  1. Atresia of the tricuspid valve.
  2. Syndrome of hypoplasia of the left heart.
  3. Double-inflow left ventricle.
  4. Double discharge of vessels from the right ventricle.
  5. Atresia of the pulmonary artery with an intact interventricular septum.
  6. Ebstein's anomaly.
  7. Defect of the atrioventricular channel (AV channel).

Tricuspid atresia

This defect is characterized by the complete absence of a tricuspid valve, a connection between the atria, and also often includes underdevelopment of the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. It accounts for approximately 1% of all cases of congenital heart anomalies. Equally common in both females and males, the incidence is 0.1 cases per 1000 people.

Risk factors for pathology include Down syndrome, poorly controlled maternal diabetes mellitus, excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and genetic predisposition.

The clinical picture is usually dominated by severe cyanosis (oxygen starvation of tissues, cyanosis) due to mixing of systemic and pulmonary venous blood in the left side of the heart. On the ECG with this pathology, a displacement of the heart axis to the left and hypertrophy (increase) of the left ventricle can be detected.

In the absence of timely treatment, tricuspid atresia is associated with high mortality. Therefore, it is important to recognize the manifestations of pathology in time. In half of patients, signs of anomaly can be found on the first day of life.

Left heart hypoplasia syndrome

This anomaly includes various types of hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of components of the left side of the heart (for example, mitral atresia), due to which it does not fulfill its natural task of providing blood flow inside the human body. Without medical intervention, this defect is fatal. Today, through a series of complex operations, an acceptable standard of living is achieved for most patients.

Dual-entry left ventricle (double-entry)

In this anomaly, both atria are associated with the left ventricle. The clinical picture of the pathology varies depending on the associated lesions and the location of the main arteries. After treatment, most patients with left ventricular dual entry can maintain a normal quality of life.. The abnormality can be complicated by conditions such as arrhythmia, ventricular failure, or AV valve insufficiency.

Double vascular discharge from the right ventricle

Doubling of the exit from the right ventricle belongs to the group of congenital heart defects, characterized by an abnormal type of connection of this chamber of the heart with the vessels. In this disease, the aorta and pulmonary trunk are wholly or predominantly derived from the right ventricle.

Pulmonary atresia with an intact interventricular septum

This pathology, like other forms of single ventricular defect, is a rare complex congenital heart disease that accounts for less than 1% of all heart defects. Prenatal (antenatal) diagnosis allows you to develop a safe plan for the management of labor and postpartum treatment of this condition.

As the name suggests, this defect consists of atresia of the pulmonary valve, leading to a lack of communication between the outflow tract of the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries, as well as an intact interventricular septum, which prevents blood flow between the right and left ventricles.

Ebstein's anomaly (syndrome)

With this pathology, the tricuspid valve is in the wrong position (lowered into the right ventricle), and its cusps are deformed. As a result, the valve apparatus does not work properly, there is a violation of the atrioventricular connection: there is a reverse blood flow, which leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the heart, as well as to its increase and heart failure.

Mild forms of Ebstein's anomaly can only cause symptoms later in life. The disease may have the following symptoms:

  1. Shortness of breath, especially on exertion.
  2. Fatigue.
  3. Rapid heartbeat or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  4. Bluish color of lips and skin due to lack of oxygen (cyanosis).

Surgical treatment approaches include tricuspid valve replacement or restoration of the patient's valve.

Atrioventricular septal defect

This pathology, also called the AV channel, is a congenital heart disease. Its feature is a defect of the interatrial and ventricular septum of varying degrees, as well as a common or partially separate atrioventricular opening.

The incidence of this anomaly is estimated from 0.24 to 0.31 per 1000 live births with no significant difference for males and females. The disease is often associated with Down syndrome. The long-term results of surgical treatment of the AV channel defect are influenced by the presence of concomitant malformations such as ventricular hypoplasia and the aforementioned Down syndrome. Over the past several decades, there has been an evolution in the surgical treatment of atrioventricular defects, which allows us to achieve good results today.

Wrong position of the heart

With a defect in a single ventricle, pathology is observed not only in the structure of the heart but also in its location in the chest. Positional anomalies refer to conditions in which the apex of a given organ is located on the right side of the chest (dextrocardia) or in the midline (mesocardia). Also, with a normal location of the heart in the left side of the chest, changes in the position of internal organs can be observed (isolated levocardia).

Prevention of endocarditis

Inflammatory damage to the inner layer of the heart (endocarditis) is one of the most serious complications of heart defects. Its prevention includes both antimicrobial and hygienic measures. Patients require careful care of their teeth, mucous membranes and skin. Antibiotic therapy is also often prescribed, for example, before and after dental procedures.

Other complications and prognosis of the disease

Thanks to the tremendous advances in cardiovascular surgery over the past 70 years, a large number of people who have undergone palliative or corrective surgery in infancy and childhood have reached adulthood. However, these patients are often troubled by symptoms caused by various anatomical, hemodynamic, electrophysiological problems that persist after cardiac surgery.

Even if the clinical results are considered good, long-term follow-up is recommended. Cardiac atrial surgery years later can be complicated by sinus or atrioventricular node dysfunction and /or atrial arrhythmias (often atrial flutter).

Ventricular surgery can also lead to electrophysiological problems, including pathology requiring a pacemaker to avoid sudden cardiac arrest.

Also, after the operation, after a long time, acquired heart defects, for example, aortic valve insufficiency can join.

Thus, a defect in a single ventricle is a complex pathology that has many different forms. This pathology requires long-term treatment, which today can significantly increase the duration and quality of life of patients.

References:

  1. Harrison`s Principles of Internal Medicine 19/E (Vol.1). Dennis Kasper, Anthony Fauci, Stephen Hauseret all. McGraw-HillEducation 2015 ISBN: 0071802134 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780071802130.
  2. Interna szczeklika - duży podręcznik. Medycyna praktyczna. 2021. ISBN 9788374306522.
  3. Pediatria do LEK i PES. Anna Dobrzańska, Józef Ryżko. 2018. ISBN: 978-83-7609-855-5.
  4. Vyas H, Hagler DJ. Double inlet left ventricle. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2007 Oct;9(5):391-8. doi: 10.1007/s11936-007-0059-5. PMID: 17897568.
  5. Metcalf, M. K., & Rychik, J. (2020). Outcomes in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 67(5), 945–962. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2020.06.008
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