Pulmonary valve stenosis treatment in 579 Cardiac surgery clinics worldwide

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579 clinics specializing in Cardiac surgery providing treatment of Pulmonary valve stenosis Pulmonary valve stenosis is a heart condition where the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This can lead to increased pressure in the right side of the heart and reduced blood flow to the lungs.
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disease worldwide.

Africa · 6
Americas · 137
Asia · 211
Europe · 200
Oceania · 25
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Africa · 6 Americas · 137 Asia · 211 Europe · 200 Oceania · 25
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Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $9,672
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $5,740
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
photo
Lajeado, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Bruno Born Hospital is a philanthropic institution, with more than 80 years. It is registered with the National, State and Municipal Councils of Social Assistance read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $9,672
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $5,740
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $17,973
photo
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Quinta D'Or Hospital opened in September 2001 and is located opposite Quinta da Boa Vista, in Rio de Janeiro. It emerged from the renovation read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $9,672
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $4,572
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $3,454
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $5,740
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $9,408
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
photo
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Lifecenter Hospital stands out among the most sophisticated and renowned health institutions in Minas Gerais. Its activities cover urgent and emergency medical care, surgeries, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $4,572
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $3,454
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $9,408
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  7. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $3,756
  8. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  9. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
photo
Serra, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Founded in 2001, Vitória Apart Hospital is a center of excellence in high complexity medicine in Espírito Santo, prepared to take care of people's health read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $22,606
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $5,142
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $16,828
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  6. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  7. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" is the pediatric center of reference in public health, free and highly complex in Argentina. Since its inauguration, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  3. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  4. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  5. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  6. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
  7. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $32,318
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $7,029
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
On July 24, 1896, the Pirovano Hospital (which was to be called Belgrano Hospital) opened its doors to ensure the assistance of an original population read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $22,606
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $5,142
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $16,828
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  5. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  6. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  7. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  8. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  9. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
photo
Posadas, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Health Park of the Province of Misiones "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" was created through Law XVII Nº70, approved by the majority of the legislative body read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery
Inaugurated on March 1, 1991, the Suizo Argentina Clinic and Maternity began its history with a revolutionary vision in the concept of care and comfort read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Pueyrredon Private Clinic was born in response to the need of Mar del Plata doctors who worked at that time as professionals in mutual read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $22,606
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $5,142
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $16,828
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
We are a benchmark health care network in Argentina and we are committed to offering the world excellent medicine. Our Hospital is among the main read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $22,606
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $5,142
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $16,828
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Instituto Modelo de Cardiologia Privado SRL (IMC) is a professional organization focused on the Vision and Mission of: Offer patients comprehensive personalized medical assistance, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $16,453
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $22,606
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $5,142
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $10,989
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $16,828
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
photo
San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sanatorio Junín offer the entire population of Catamarca and the NOA integrated health care at levels of low to high complexity, with a highly qualified read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $18,565
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $15,954
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $36,325
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  5. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  7. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Footscray, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Footscray Hospital is an acute teaching hospital with approximately 290 beds (following recent relocation of a number of services to Sunshine Hospital). It provides the read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $18,565
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $15,954
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $36,325
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  5. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  6. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  7. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Saint Albans, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sunshine Hospital is an acute and sub-acute teaching hospital with approximately 600 beds(including Mental Health beds managed by North West Mental Health). Sunshine Hospital has read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $38,625
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $21,524
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $76,496
photo
Camperdown, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: Portuguese, Russian, Turkish
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital is one of Australia's premier tertiary referral hospitals and is recognised as a worldwide leader in healthcare excellence and innovation. RPA read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $38,625
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $18,565
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $15,954
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $21,524
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $36,325
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
photo
Auchenflower, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
For generations of Queenslanders, The Wesley Hospital in Brisbane has provided care through life’s journey — from birth into childhood, to adulthood and to end read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $18,565
  2. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $15,954
  3. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $36,325
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  7. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  8. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  9. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
photo
Garran, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Canberra Health Services (CHS) delivers high quality, effective, person-centred care. We deliver a range of health services for people across the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $38,625
  2. Balloon valvuloplasty
    ≈ $18,565
  3. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV)
    ≈ $15,954
  4. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $21,524
  5. Open pulmonary valvotomy
    ≈ $36,325
  6. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  8. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  9. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
photo
Bedford Park, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: English
Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is the southern areas largest hospital and provides medical services for people living in the southern metropolitan area of Adelaide. The read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $38,625
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $21,524
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
photo
Perth, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Established in 1855 Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) is Western Australia's longest-serving hospital and renowned for contributing to innovation and excellence in medical research and patient read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (PVR)
    ≈ $38,625
  2. Open commissurotomy
    ≈ $21,524
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
photo
Randwick, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: Chinese, Russian
We have 450 inpatient beds and almost 3,000 staff. Each year we care for more than 58,000 patients in our Emergency Department and around 50,000 read more

Clinics grouping by rating

Clinic with the highest rating of 5 — Clinical Hospital Lapino in Moscow, Russia and 5 more, clinic with the most reviews number of 35612 — Aster CMI hospital in Bengaluru, India.

With rating 4.0 and over — 206 clinics .

Countries with the highest number of clinics treating the diseases:

Pulmonary valve stenosis:

Related procedures:

Pulmonary valve stenosis – disease overview

Classification, pathophysiology of valvular pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary stenosis is a defect in the valve of the pulmonary artery. In this case, the valve itself hardens, causing obstruction of the vessel and impaired blood flow. This disease is usually congenital, benign, diagnosed in children who have a positive prognosis. Pulmonary stenosis is also present in adults, usually in association with severe structural heart disease.

What is congenital pulmonary valve stenosis?

Pulmonary stenosis is a condition characterized by an obstruction in which blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk is interrupted. This obstruction is caused by a narrowing (called “stenosis” in medical parlance) at one or more points from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. Areas of potential stenosis include:

  • thickening of the muscles under the valve of the pulmonary trunk;
  • narrowing of the valve opening;
  • or stenosis of the pulmonary trunk above the valve.

The most common form is obstruction of the valve itself, called pulmonary valve stenosis.

The normal pulmonary valve consists of three thin and flexible leaflets. When the right ventricle ejects blood, the normal valve leaflets open easily and do not obstruct the outflow of blood from the heart. Most often, with stenosis of the pulmonary valve, its leaflets thicken and merge together along the lines of separation (commissures). As a result, the leaflets become less pliable than normal, which contributes to the development of a narrowing of the hole and further disruption of blood flow.

When the pulmonic valve is blocked, the right ventricle must work harder to expel blood. To compensate for this extra load, the right ventricular muscle (myocardium) gradually thickens, a process called hypertrophy.

Reasons for the development of the disease

Pulmonary stenosis is commonly associated with congenital structural cardiac syndromes, including tetralogy of Fallot and Noonan's syndrome. Rubella virus infection during pregnancy is also a common cause of congenital stenosis, although it is not a genetic defect. Symptomatic onset of pulmonary stenosis in adults is also possible. It is sometimes seen during pregnancy if the stenosis is not previously identified, and also in women suffering from concomitant carcinoid syndrome. In addition, people with rheumatic heart disease, previous cardiothoracic surgery, or a heart tumor may develop pulmonary stenosis.

This defect accounts for 7-10% of all congenital heart anomalies. Pathology affects women to a slightly greater extent. About 2% of cases that occur in members of the same family do not end up with a genetic cause.

Pathophysiology

Isolated pulmonary stenosis is subdivided into valvular, subvalvular and supravalvular obstruction.

Valvular pulmonary stenosis is the most common type. In typical valvular disease, the adhesions are partially fused and the valve leaflets are thin. During systole, the right ventricle becomes domed. Less commonly, pulmonary valves may be dysplastic (underdeveloped), thickened, and non-fused. An associated hypoplastic annulus and upper pulmonary artery are common in atypical presentation and are also associated with Noonan syndrome.

Subvalvular pulmonary stenosis is a defect that obstructs the infundibular (subvalvular) region, i.e. significantly reducing its permeability. The cause of fibromuscular narrowing of the outflow tract of the right ventricle may be associated with a double-chambered right ventricle or Fallot's tetralogy, as well as surgical intervention on the valves.

Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis, also known as peripheral pulmonary stenosis, is essentially a functional obstruction of the pulmonary artery. Blockage is likely both in the basilar artery and at the bifurcation point, i.e. ramifications. It can also develop in the distal branches of the pulmonary artery or in any combination of areas. Supravalvular stenosis is associated with structural defects of the atrial or interventricular septum, patent ductus arteriosus, and tetralogy of Fallot. Supravalvular stenosis can also be the result of surgical correction of the transposition of the great arteries.

Signs and symptoms

Children with pulmonary stenosis usually do not have symptoms. They are outwardly healthy and do not show signs of any disease.

A heart murmur is the most common symptom found by a doctor, indicating a valve problem. Children with mild to moderate pulmonary valvular stenosis have an easily detectable heart murmur but are usually not clinically apparent.

In severe pulmonary valve obstruction, especially in critically ill neonates, the right ventricle cannot eject enough blood into the pulmonary trunk to maintain normal oxygen saturation. In these cases, venous, oxygen-poor blood bypasses the right ventricle. It flows from the right atrium to the left through the foramen ovale, or foramen, which is usually present in newborns. Thus, newborns with critical pulmonary stenosis will present with cyanosis (i.e., blue discoloration of the lips and nail beds) due to lower blood oxygen levels.

A newborn with critical pulmonary stenosis requires immediate treatment: either balloon dilatation (widening of the valve opening with the help of certain manipulations) or surgery.

In older children, a severe form of the disease can be manifested by rapid fatigue. Sometimes there is shortness of breath, especially with intense physical exertion. It is important that even a severe degree of stenosis rarely leads to the development of right ventricular failure, and also almost never provokes sudden death.

Diagnosis of the pulmonary stenosis

The first sign that suggests pulmonary stenosis is a heart murmur. An extraneous sound is a turbulent noise caused by the ejection of blood through an obstructive valve. Often there is a corresponding click: it is caused by the thick valve snapping into the open position.

The electrocardiogram in people with mild pulmonary stenosis is usually normal. With moderate to severe narrowing, an ECG film can reveal an increase in the right ventricle and thickening of its muscles.

Echocardiography is the most important non-invasive test for detecting and evaluating pulmonary valve stenosis. An echocardiogram accurately documents the presence of obstruction at the valve level, and a Doppler study is used to assess the degree of obstruction.
An echocardiogram is also important to rule out other problems that may be associated with pulmonary stenosis, such as an atrial or ventricular septal defect.

Cardiac catheterization is an invasive technique that allows doctors to accurately measure the degree of existing pulmonary stenosis. During cardiac catheterization, the pressure above and below the valve is measured to determine the degree of obstruction, and a video is taken to visualize the pulmonic valve. Angiography may be performed.

Over the past 15 years, echocardiography has largely replaced cardiac catheterization for diagnostic purposes. A complex invasive procedure is rarely required to make a diagnosis. Instead, balloon dilation is usually performed.

Treatment of valvular stenosis

Children with moderate pulmonary valve stenosis rarely need treatment. People with mild pulmonary valve stenosis are generally healthy. They can participate in all types of physical activity and sporting events and lead a normal life.

Mild pulmonary stenosis, diagnosed in childhood, rarely progresses beyond the first year of life, but still requires careful monitoring.

Children with moderate to severe pulmonary stenosis require treatment. Its type depends on the valve anomaly present. Most often, the pulmonary valve is of normal size, and the obstruction occurs due to fusion of commissures or lines of opening of the valve leaflets.

This "typical" form of pulmonary valve stenosis lends itself very well to balloon dilatation. This procedure is performed during cardiac catheterization and does not require open heart surgery. As a rule, in older children, the procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, unless otherwise indicated.

In neonates, balloon dilatation in critical pulmonary valve stenosis can be technically challenging. Often such children are born in a critical condition or easily pass into it.
Open-heart surgery is needed in difficult cases where they are occluded by thick and dysplastic leaflet tissue (eg, in patients with Noonan's syndrome).

In these cases, open-heart surgery may require valvotomy (opening the valve) or partial removal of its leaflet.

Disease prognosis

For children and adolescents with "typical" pulmonary stenosis, a balloon dilatation procedure is usually the only intervention needed. Rarely, older children experience recurrence of significant obstruction of the pulmonary valve after a successful procedure.

Neonates and young children with very severe valve obstruction also respond well to balloon dilatation, even if the valve is underdeveloped.

However, recurrence of significant pulmonary stenosis occurs in approximately 5-10% of children within 10 years of intervention. Sometimes these people may need a second balloon dilation or open-heart surgery.

It is important that all children with pulmonary stenosis, even after successful balloon dilatation or open-heart surgery, be evaluated regularly.

The prognosis for most patients is excellent. With the exception of critical stenosis in the neonatal period, most patients will lead a normal life. In 67% of patients undergoing revision surgery, 90% of maximal exercise tolerance is achieved, and only 15-20% require reoperation. 67% of reoperations are associated with significant pulmonary regurgitation - the reverse flow of blood from the artery.

Life of people with pulmonary valve stenosis

There are several options for how the disease can develop. The mildest is the one in which mild pulmonary stenosis, identified in childhood, remains the same in an adult, without becoming heavier. This means no progression and therefore no need for frequent medical interventions.

Most patients who have undergone balloon dilatation, and even open-heart surgery, do not need further attention from the doctor later.

With moderate stenosis, a person's well-being can also be quite good. A proportion of these people will develop complications and expert supervision will be recommended. Finally, pulmonary stenosis may present as part of a more complex set of congenital heart anomalies. All such patients require lifelong expert supervision and treatment.

References:

  1. Anderson K, Cnota J, James J, Miller EM, Parrott A, Pilipenko V, Weaver KN, Shikany A. Prevalence of Noonan spectrum disorders in a pediatric population with valvar pulmonary stenosis. Congenit Heart Dis. 2019 Mar;14(2):264-273.
  2. Khanra D, Shrivastava Y, Duggal B, Soni S. Congenital supravalvular and subvalvular pulmonary stenosis with hypoplastic pulmonary annulus associated with congenital rubella syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Jul 10;12(7).
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