Acute congestive heart failure treatment in 522 Cardiac surgery clinics worldwide

Top
Clinics
Ratings
Diseases
Read about
Quick navigation

522 clinics specializing in Cardiac surgery providing treatment of Acute congestive heart failure Acute congestive heart failure refers to the sudden onset of heart failure symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fluid retention, and fatigue. It requires urgent medical attention to manage the underlying cause and restore heart function.
Read more...
disease worldwide.

Africa · 2
Americas · 134
Asia · 166
Europe · 198
Oceania · 22
You can select a specific region
Africa · 2 Americas · 134 Asia · 166 Europe · 198 Oceania · 22
Sorted by:
Relevance
Rating Relevance
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
photo
Lajeado, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Bruno Born Hospital is a philanthropic institution, with more than 80 years. It is registered with the National, State and Municipal Councils of Social Assistance read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Hospital São Camilo Pompeia has followed, over the years, the growth of the population and the scientific and technological advances aimed at medical and read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Integrated into the São Camilo de São Paulo Hospitals Network in March 1979, the Santana Unit has an agile and modern structure implemented to offer read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  4. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  5. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
  6. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,003
  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $3,942
  8. Catheter cardiac ablation
    ≈ $3,620
  9. Catheter cryoablation
    ≈ $8,265
photo
São Paulo, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
A member of the Network since 2000, Hospital São Camilo Ipiranga has an emergency room for patients aged 12 years and over, an Intensive Care read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  5. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  6. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  7. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  8. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $17,973
photo
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Quinta D'Or Hospital opened in September 2001 and is located opposite Quinta da Boa Vista, in Rio de Janeiro. It emerged from the renovation read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $8,834
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $9,355
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $9,599
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $8,535
photo
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Lifecenter Hospital stands out among the most sophisticated and renowned health institutions in Minas Gerais. Its activities cover urgent and emergency medical care, surgeries, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $1,008
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $1,408
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $4,655
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $8,740
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $10,092
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $3,756
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $6,898
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $4,305
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $5,352
photo
Serra, Brazil
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Founded in 2001, Vitória Apart Hospital is a center of excellence in high complexity medicine in Espírito Santo, prepared to take care of people's health read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
    by request
  2. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  3. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $2,022
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  6. Fontan procedure
    ≈ $18,235
  7. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  8. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  9. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" is the pediatric center of reference in public health, free and highly complex in Argentina. Since its inauguration, read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $2,022
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  7. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $1,511
  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $7,029
  9. Single chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $7,520
photo
Posadas, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
The Health Park of the Province of Misiones "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" was created through Law XVII Nº70, approved by the majority of the legislative body read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
    by request
  2. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  3. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $2,022
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
photo
Córdoba, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
We are a benchmark health care network in Argentina and we are committed to offering the world excellent medicine. Our Hospital is among the main read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $2,022
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $7,623
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $9,250
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $9,238
  7. Single chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $7,520
  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacemaker (CRT-P)
    ≈ $10,888
  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D)
    ≈ $20,431
photo
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
As of March 14, 1994, the Alexander Fleming Institute opened its doors to medical and scientific excellence. Maximum technical-scientific level and comfort in one of read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $2,042
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $2,022
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $6,735
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $17,315
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $16,921
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $24,885
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $21,634
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $23,180
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $18,325
photo
San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Argentina
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sanatorio Junín offer the entire population of Catamarca and the NOA integrated health care at levels of low to high complexity, with a highly qualified read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Footscray, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Footscray Hospital is an acute teaching hospital with approximately 290 beds (following recent relocation of a number of services to Sunshine Hospital). It provides the read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Saint Albans, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Sunshine Hospital is an acute and sub-acute teaching hospital with approximately 600 beds(including Mental Health beds managed by North West Mental Health). Sunshine Hospital has read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
    by request
  2. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  3. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  4. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  5. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  6. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  7. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
  8. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
    ≈ $76,496
  9. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB)
    ≈ $18,704
photo
Camperdown, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: Portuguese, Russian, Turkish
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital is one of Australia's premier tertiary referral hospitals and is recognised as a worldwide leader in healthcare excellence and innovation. RPA read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  5. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  6. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  7. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  8. Coronary catheterization
    ≈ $4,121
  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
photo
Southport, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Oncology
We’re located on the corner of Parklands Drive and Olsen Avenue in Southport and provide public health services for the Gold Coast and wider community. read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  4. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  5. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  6. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent insertion
    ≈ $11,142
  8. Septal myectomy
    ≈ $34,272
  9. Fractional flow reserve (FFR)
    ≈ $2,542
photo
Woolloongabba, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: English
Princess Alexandra Hospital (PAH) is a tertiary health care centre, providing care in all major adult specialties, with the exception of obstetrics. We are read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  6. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  7. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  8. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
  9. Mitral valve replacement (MVR)
    ≈ $34,325
photo
Auchenflower, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
For generations of Queenslanders, The Wesley Hospital in Brisbane has provided care through life’s journey — from birth into childhood, to adulthood and to end read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  2. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  3. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  4. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  6. Permanent pacemaker implantation
    ≈ $16,298
  7. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
    ≈ $31,433
  8. Percutaneous ASD closure
    ≈ $17,519
  9. Percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    ≈ $23,421
photo
Garran, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Canberra Health Services (CHS) delivers high quality, effective, person-centred care. We deliver a range of health services for people across the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) read more
Prices for popular procedures:
  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
    by request
  2. Cardiac catheterization
    ≈ $5,245
  3. Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure
    ≈ $6,795
  4. Dual chamber pacemaker insertion
    ≈ $19,679
  5. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    ≈ $36,432
  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass
    ≈ $42,043
  7. Heart valve replacement
    ≈ $41,494
  8. Heart valve repair
    ≈ $37,134
  9. Aortic valve replacement (AVR)
    ≈ $41,967
photo
Bedford Park, Australia
Specializations: Cardiac surgery, Vascular surgery, Thoracic surgery, Neurosurgery, Spine surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Oncology
Languages: English
Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is the southern areas largest hospital and provides medical services for people living in the southern metropolitan area of Adelaide. The read more

Clinics grouping by rating

Clinic with the highest rating of 5 — Clinical Hospital Lapino in Moscow, Russia and 5 more, clinic with the most reviews number of 35612 — Aster CMI hospital in Bengaluru, India.

With rating 4.0 and over — 183 clinics .

Countries with the highest number of clinics treating the diseases:

Acute congestive heart failure:

Related procedures:

Procedures are likely to be used for Acute congestive heart failure treatment: Cardiac catheterization, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) procedure .

Acute heart failure – what is this?

Clinical picture of AHF

Acute heart failure is a condition in which the symptoms of a malfunctioning heart quickly appear or worsen (the heart ceases to properly perform its primary function of pumping blood around the body), and the patient needs urgent medical attention.

Below we will analyze in detail the clinical picture of the disease, its classification, and also briefly discuss the causes of this pathology.

This condition can occur both in asymptomatic patients and in people who already have chronic heart failure (CHF).

The origin of the disease

The causes of acute heart failure can be a number of pathological conditions, namely:

  1. The so-called acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This condition, as well as coronary heart disease, are very important in the context of the analysis of clinical signs of acute heart failure.
  2. Hypertensive crisis (excessive increase in blood pressure).
  3. Arrhythmias (with increased heart rate and conduction disturbances) causing severe bradycardia.
  4. Pulmonary embolism (PE).
  5. Dissection of the aorta.
  6. Cardiac tamponade (accumulation of fluid around the heart that prevents normal contraction).
  7. Various types of cardiomyopathy (mechanical or electrical dysfunction of the heart).
  8. Complications of surgical interventions.
  9. Tense pneumothorax (accumulation of air in the pleural cavity).
  10. Exacerbation of chronic heart failure.
  11. Infections, including infective endocarditis and myocarditis (damage to the inner layer of the heart - endocardium - and heart muscle - myocardium).
  12. Metabolic and hormonal disorders (eg, thyroid disease, adrenal tumor).
  13. Pulmonary hypertension, etc.

Often the acronym CHAMP is used to reproduce the root causes of acute heart failure:

  • C (acute Coronary syndrome) - acute coronary syndrome;
  • H (Hypertension emergency) - hypertensive crisis;
  • A (Arrhythmia) - tachyarrhythmia (for example, ventricular flutter) or bradycardia (decreased heart rate);
  • M (acute Mechanical cause) - an acute mechanical cause (for example, trauma);
  • P (Pulmonary embolism) - pulmonary embolism.

The most common cause, especially in the elderly, is coronary artery disease. In young people, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, congenital and acquired heart defects, myocarditis predominate.

Clinical course of acute heart failure

The symptoms of this pathology can be divided into two groups, depending on which ventricle is affected.

  1. Stagnation in the systemic circulation (right ventricular failure) is manifested by the following symptoms:
    • peripheral edema - swelling of the sacrum, ankle joint;
    • enlargement of the jugular veins;
    • soreness in the epigastrium due to enlargement of the liver;
    • in more severe cases - the accumulation of fluid in the serous cavities (pleura, peritoneum, pericardium), as well as anasarca - an extreme degree of edema syndrome, more characteristic of chronic heart failure. With it, generalized edema, fluid retention in the body, and lack of urination are observed.
  2. Stagnation of blood in the pulmonary circulation, which is also called left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema. Symptoms of left ventricular failure include manifestations of the respiratory system, namely:
    • rapid breathing and shortness of breath, which can also be in a sitting position;
    • wheezing over the pulmonary fields.

Separately, symptoms are distinguished with a decrease in cardiac output (peripheral hypoperfusion). They occur less frequently than manifestations of stagnation. Among them are:

  • easy fatigue and weakness;
  • confusion of consciousness, drowsiness;
  • pale, cool, moist, and sometimes bluish skin;
  • threadlike pulse;
  • decrease in pressure and urine volume.

The patient will also show symptoms of the underlying disease causing the AHF. For example, with a myocardial infarction, the patient will complain of severe chest pain, a feeling of fear of death, he may have loss of consciousness, lack of breathing and blood circulation.

European classification of acute heart failure

Experts from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommend that patients be classified according to what are known as hemodynamic profiles. First, the doctor must determine the presence or absence of stagnation in the systemic circulation. Conclusions are drawn primarily from a physical examination (sometimes supplemented by laboratory tests). As a result, the patient can be "warm and wet", "warm and dry", "cold and wet", "cold and dry". Depending on the person's hemodynamic profile, the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Options for the course of acute heart failure

The disease can proceed as:

  1. Exacerbation or decompensation of chronic heart failure - symptoms of blood stagnation in the systemic and pulmonary circulation.
  2. Pulmonary edema.
  3. AHF with high blood pressure. With this type, the doctor can detect signs of both heart failure and hypertension, but the contractile functions of the left ventricle will be preserved. Increased heart rate and spasm of blood vessels are also common. The patient may be in a state of normal fluid balance in the body or mild overhydration, often with signs of pulmonary edema without signs of cardiovascular insufficiency in the systemic circulation.
  4. Cardiogenic shock. In this case, the patient is found to have insufficient blood supply to the body tissues (hypoperfusion), while the systolic blood pressure is less than 90 mm Hg. Anuria or oliguria, cardiac arrhythmias are also observed, pulmonary edema, as well as other tissues and organs, rapidly develops.
  5. Isolated right-sided acute heart failure, the symptoms of which do not include pulmonary edema, but this disease may include increased pressure in the veins of the neck and an enlarged liver.
  6. AHF due to the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome, which most often occurs in heart failure in conjunction with arterial hypertension.

Killip and Kimball classification of acute heart failure

This classification is widely used in clinical practice to determine the severity of the pathology and the prognosis for the patient. It was developed for AHF during a recent myocardial infarction. The classification is based on clinical symptoms and changes on chest x-ray and contains four stages of AHF.

Stage 1 - no heart failure: there are no clinical signs of cardiac decompensation.

Stage 2 - heart failure: stagnation of blood in the lungs, manifested by moist wheezing, mainly in the lower pulmonary fields.

Stage 3 - severe heart failure: pulmonary edema or wheezing throughout the pulmonary fields.

Stage 4 - cardiogenic shock: hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg) and features of peripheral hypoperfusion: oliguria (decrease in the volume of daily urine), cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin) and profuse sweating.

Diagnosis of the disease

In most cases, after examining the patient, the doctor may suspect the presence of acute heart failure. Additional diagnostic tests are used to identify causes and complications, and to differentiate AHF.

The following laboratory tests can be performed:

  • general and biochemical blood tests (including determination of the level of creatinine, urea, liver enzymes and glucose);
  • gasometry (determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide content in blood);
  • determination of the level of troponin, natriuretic peptides, D-dimer, sodium and potassium.

Instrumental studies include conducting:

  • ECG: there may be rhythm and / or conduction disturbances;
  • chest x-ray: venous congestion in the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary edema, an increase in the shadow of the heart are often found;
  • echocardiography: almost always performed in patients with cardiogenic shock if complications of myocardial infarction or aortic dissection are suspected.

With ACS, coronary angiography is used to assess the state of the vessels of the heart.

Disease prognosis

Further patient management and complications of this pathology depend on the cause of AHF and the results of treatment.

Factors that worsen the prognosis are:

  • increasing the concentration of brain natriuretic protein and natriuretic peptide type B in the blood;
  • if the patient has renal failure;
  • increased levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, etc.);
  • low blood pressure and insufficient sodium in the blood.

Summary

Acute heart failure (AHF) is a pathology in which rapidly worsening or emerging symptoms of heart failure occur (congestion in the pulmonary and / or systemic circulation, decreased cardiac output, cardiogenic shock). Most often, AHF occurs as an exacerbation of chronic forms or a complication of ACS.

There are four types of hemodynamic profiles for this disease, which helps the doctor to choose the right treatment tactics.

References:

  1. Ponikowski, Piotr et al. “2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.” European journal of heart failure vol. 18,8 (2016): 891-975. doi:10.1002/ejhf.592.
  2. Harrison`s Principles of Internal Medicine 19/E (Vol.1). Dennis Kasper, Anthony Fauci, Stephen Hauseret all. McGraw-HillEducation 2015 ISBN: 0071802134 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780071802130.
  3. Interna szczeklika - duży podręcznik. Medycyna praktyczna. 2021. ISBN 9788374306522.